Automatic Changes in Tactic
Not only will the disrupted person see the world differently and have different capabilities available to them, the disrupted person will take an altered approach to behavioral engagement. A person in disruption will take the most direct approach toward achieving equilibrium (Barker, Dembo, & Lewin, 1941; Gentry & Kirwin, 1972; Shows, Gentry, & Wyrick, 1974). People experiencing a goal violation in the form of not receiving the expected reward have been reported to respond with increased vigor (Amsel & Hancock, 1957). As eloquently noted by Lewin, “If the tension in frustrating situations is too high, the actions in the direction of the goal are likely to become emotional and more ‘primitive.’ ‘Unreserved’ might be a more favorable description of someone in disruption. In many ways, the direct or aggressive approach (Zander, 1944) can be considered the result of focusing only on the immediate, not having any cognitive flexibility, and not seeing nuances. Put another way, the person will not have as many behavioral options available due to the intense focus on returning to equilibrium, which includes a narrowing of the psychological environment (Lewin, 1941). The direct approach is likely seen as the only approach. Further, as the disrupted person is less open to feedback, it is unlikely that they will make good use of trial and error. The more intense the level of disruption, the more the individual will be willing to injure themselves, physically or otherwise, if it would lead to their desired goal (i.e., purposive harm endurance; Rosenberg et al., in press; Siegel, 2004, 2011; Siegel et al., 2012). Collateral damage is likely irrelevant, and future ramifications of behavior are likely inaccessible to the disrupted individual (Lewin, 1951). They will be unlikely to consider the most efficient means of reaching their goal; they will be focused on the quickest path to the goal. As stated by Lewin (1941), “In other words, instead of trying to find round-about routes in an organized systematic way, direct actions occur which are frequently vague and primitive in character” (p. 184).