The construct of psychological disequilibrium has a history as long as psychological scholarship itself. Psychological disequilibrium is an aversive, motivating state that leads to adaptation-based mental constriction focused on restoring equilibrium—including activation of means-end beliefs about how equilibrium can be restored (Cannon, 1932; Piaget & Inhelder, 1958; Raup, 1925). This is in line with Tolman’s (1932) theorizing of a heightened drive state, Barker, Dembo and Lewin’s (1941) conceptualization of regression, and recent studies on Terror Management Theory (e.g., Arndt & Solomon, 2003). A return to equilibrium will become the paramount focus as system-wide adaptive processes engage with the goal of maximizing the likelihood of a return to equilibrium (for similar conceptualization see Arndt & Solomon, 2003; Lewin, 1946; Perls, Hefferline, & Goodman, 1951). Psychological disequilibrium and the resulting discomfort will persist until psychological balance is returned. As Tolman notes, “The ultimate drive is for the removal of the driving physiological condition (or the prevention of the physiological injury or interference)” (1926, p. 354). To restore psychological balance, people’s behavioral systems adapt to maximize the perceived likelihood of success, including automatic activation of desired goal states (i.e., outcomes perceived to be associated with goal satiation and psychological equilibrium) and automatic activation of means-end beliefs (i.e., the perceived paths through which the desired goal state can be achieved, Tolman, 1932). As psychological disequilibrium, or disturbance of homeostasis (Britt & Janus, 1940) can arise as a result of manifold occurrences (e.g., hunger, sexual arousal, anticipation of a future event that is negatively construed), GDT uses the term goal disruption to exclusively refer to a state of psychological disequilibrium caused by a goal expectancy violation. Specifically, GDT posits that goal disruption is a persistent state of disequilibrium whereby adaptive processes, enacted as a result of the violation, influence the thoughts and actions of the person with the ultimate goal of survival and regaining a sense of equilibrium.