Adaptive Changes in Disposition
A person in disruption will exhibit character and temperament that is not common to the individual. These changes are not random, but purposive. The person is in survival mode resulting from an uncertain event, focusing on the self, and perceiving uncertainty and ambiguity as noxious as an adaptive response to the situation. Specifically, compared to the person’s norm, a lower tolerance for ambiguity (Smock, 1955), an increased desire for structure (Arndt & Solomon, 2003), an increased need for certainty (Hogg, 2007), and an increased need for closure (Kruglanski & Webster, 1996) will be exhibited. The disrupted individual is also likely to be more irritable and hostile toward anything impeding a return to equilibrium (Carver & Harmon-Jones, 2009; Erikson, 1959; Gentry & Kirwin, 1972; Lewin, 1941; Zander, 1944). The person will be closed to feedback that is not specific to regaining goal integrity (Trope & Pomerantz, 1998) and egocentrism will be exhibited (Becker, 1999); the disrupted person will also be less inclined to take the other person’s perspective (Hale & Delia, 1976). The individual will be more defensive, less trusting (Dunn& Schweitzer, 2005), and less willing to forgive (DeShea, 2003).